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Or, if the two ‘parts’ have a synergic relationship, then “X” and “Y” are made greater
by their interaction.

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The sum of the whole (X + Y) is greaterthan the sum of the ‘parts’ (X) + (Y).

These are the three general classes of co-Actions. Co-Actions can be assigned to these
three classes based on net effect. There is a class of neutral Co-Actions, a class of
adversary co-Actions, and a class of synergic co-Actions .

Edward Haskell explained that within these three classes there are nine possible
specific co-Actions.

We can find nine specific types of co-Actions to describe the relationships between the
‘parts’ of any ‘whole’ or

The relationship within the unity might be good for “X”, good for “Y”; it might be good
for “
X”, neutral for “Y”; it might be good for “Y”, bad for “X”; it might be neutral for “X”,
good for “
Y”; etc.; etc..

Edward Haskell’s described these nine possibilities in his Co-Action Table, shown

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Within a unity, each ‘part’ may benefit, may remain unchanged, or may be injured. We
see the same table below using the language of games.

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Universe as Choice

Edward Haskell’s System-Hierarchy62, was first formulated in 1964, it contained
seven“kingdoms”—particles, atoms, molecules, geoid systems, plants, animals,
humans. In 1976, Arthur Young working independently without knowledge of
Haskell’s work, formulated the
Theory of Process63. In it he distinguished seven
stagesof process in Universe—light, particles, atoms, molecules, plants, animals,
humans. Both Haskell’s System-Hierarchywith seven“kingdoms”, and
Theory of Processwith sevenstages of process are ‘models’ of Universe
and offer value in understanding Nature. Their similarities offer us corroboration, and
their differences offer us opportunity to improve our understanding.

Arthur Young explains that all stages of processmake choices. Universe is
structured from these choices. Understanding choice is fundamental to
understanding Universe, process, and ourselves. Action implies a need for choice. The
living system must choose which action or actions to take. The living system must
whento act and whereto act. Actions bring choices.

Choice is defined in the dictionary as deciding, picking, selecting. This would seem a
type of
pre-action, or for living organisms mental or intellectual action.

Arthur Young believed that the phenomena of choice begins even before the beginning
of life. He tells of the work or an earlier Young (no relation to him). An Englishman
named Thomas Young who in 1803, shed light on the phenomenon of choice when he
designed a unique double slit light experiment.

Some interpret his experiment as demonstrating that photonsmake decisions.64It
appears that a photon of light makes a
randomchoice as to where it will go in
universe. When a photon is released at a particular point in universe, one second later
it can be anywhere within a sphere of 186,000 miles. Recall from
UCS•1,our earlier
discussion of the phenomena of choice.

Choice begins at the energy level of the photon. A photon of light makes random choices

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62Edward Haskell, FULL CIRCLE, 1972, ibid
63Arthur Young, The Reflexive Universe, 1976, ibid
64Gary Zukav, Dancing Wu Li Masters, William Morrow & Co., 1979

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as where and when it will go in Universe. When a photon is released at a particular
point in Universe, one second later it can be anywhere within a sphere of 186,000

Scientifically, choiceis defined as that condition where a system moves from a point of
multifaceted potentiality to a point of single actuality.

The photon, once released at some point in Universe has the multifaceted potential to
be anywhere within a sphere of 186,000 miles within one second. We cannot predict
where it will be at the end of that second, for its choice is random. But we see that it
moves to only one place in that sphere. It selects a single actuality.

Choice –def—>

Multifaceted potentiality –becoming a—> single actuality

Again, if photons choose, then they must have a form of consciousness. This is not the
complex form of consciousness we see in humans. Light is the simplest form of process
and consciousness at the stage of light must be the simplest of consciousnesses.

Light is the simplest of Universe’s phenomena and humans appear to be the most
complex. In Universe all is change. And change means change in energy. Change in
energy is change in information. Universe is full of change and Universe is made up of
energy and information. We humans know that when we are confronted by change, we
respond by making choices. Every event—be it birth of a child or loss of a loved one,
feast or famine, poverty or prosperity, peace or war—represents change. Every idea—
be it a discovery that cures cancer or a decision to commit a crime—represents
change. Every situation—be it getting a new job or losing a job, marriage or divorce,
childhood or old age—represents change. We humans adapt to these changes by
making choices. This is what all living systems do from the time of conception until
they perish. They make choices. They make decisions.

The human brain is estimated to be capable of 10 raised to the exponential power of 800
thoughts (10
800)—multifaceted potential. The human brain will have only one
thought at the time of decision—single actuality. At any moment I am capable of an
enormous number of behaviors but I will choose only one—
multifaceted potential
becoming single actuality
. With the power of action comes opportunity for choice.

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And while choice is available to all forms of process, there are restraints to those

Universe as Restraintto Choice

Scienceis that human behavior that seeks to determine the boundaries of restraint—
the boundaries that limit choices. These restraints to choices once discovered are
expressed in scientific theories—in scientific generalizations. These are the rules of
Universe—the ‘
Lawsof Nature.

Universe is hierarchical and different restraints exist at different levels of hierarchy.
Because Universe is knowable, it can be studied and understood. Because Nature
plays fair and follows the rules, we know that whatever happens in Universe
happen. When we understand all of the laws of Nature that apply to a particular form
of process, and when we understand the choices made within that process then we can
accurately predict what will happen.

Science promises us again and again that if we but discover the laws of Nature that
apply to ourselves—that apply to humanity, then we humans can choose the reality
we want.

Universe as Hierarchy

Universe is hierarchical. It is arranged in levels. This hierarchical ‘structure’ of
Universe is created by the interaction of choice and restraint. It is as if choice and
restraint were partners in a dance. The Universe is in constant motion and Universe
is not a hierarchy of things, it is a hierarchy of
processes. In Unified Science65,
Edward Haskell explained that Universe was a system-hierarchy:

“The universe is a Systems-Hierarchy. It has evolved in a cumulative manner,
each higher step in this hierarchy, after the first, consisting of lower step
components plus a new entity which has emerged out of the hierarchy,
mutually modified. The world is therefore at the same time “richly strange and
deeply simple.”

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65Edward Haskell, FULL CIRCLE, 1972, ibid

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“Consider the deep simplicity of Unified Science: the “steps” of its great natural
hierarchy fit together like the broad rings of collapsible aluminium drinking
cup, shown dis-assembled in the above figure.

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“Each broad ring represents a natural kingdom or Major Stratum.Large
portions of the bottom ring, stable particles, nest into the second ring, atoms,
as shown by means of the nested braces in the drawing. (Stable particles —
plus neutrons which are composed of stable particles — combine to form
atoms.) Large portions of these two rings nest into the third ring, molecules.
(Atoms combine to form molecules.) Large portion of these three nest into the
fourth ring called geoid systems. (Particles, atoms, and molecules combine to
form the lowest geoid systems, gas -dust clouds, and these form all the higher
ones — stars, planets, moons and so forth.) And so on up to the highest known
natural kingdom, human cultures.

“The hierarchy of ecosystems extends, shown in the drawing, from Alpha  to
Omega Ω, the beginning and the end — of organization.”

—Edward Haskell

Take yourself, you are a living system. If we look inward towards the microcosm we
see that your
bodyis made up of organs, your organs are made up of tissues, your
tissues are made up of
cells, your cells are made up of organelles, your organelles are
made up of
molecules, your molecules are made up of atoms, your atoms are made up
particlesand your particles are made up of gravitationally trappedlight.

If you look outtowards the macrocosm, you are a member of a family, your family is
part of a
community, your community is part of a city, your city is part of a county,
your county is part of a
state, your state is part of a nation,and your nation is part of
the entire
human culture which inhabits planet earth.

And, if we look farther out from our earth, we see that the earth is a part of the solar
, which is part of a galaxy, which is part of a star cluster, which is part of a
supercluster, which is part of Universe. The structure of Universe is hierarchical
and the levels of this hierarchy are cumulative. They include one another. If we
humans are to understand ourselves, we must consider ourselves in terms of the rest
of Universe in which we are embedded.

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66Edward Haskell, FULL CIRCLE, 1972, ibid

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