The vocabulary of Unified Science is identical with those of the traditional sciences in regard to empirical data. Yet, while the properties and objectives which are peculiar to Unified Science are found in all of its empirical components, they result from the marriage of formal disciplines: of General Systems Theory with geometry. It is not, therefore, by chance that Unified Science appears, from the viewpoint of logic, to carry out well known proposals of two famous General Systems authorities, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and Kenneth Boulding.2

"General systems theory in the narrower sense (G.S.T.)," says von Bertalanffy, "is trying to derive from a general definition of `system' a complex of interacting components, concepts characteristic of organized wholes . . . and to apply them to concrete phenomena."3 This method is typical of the deductive-theoretical mode of thought.

A major objective of Unified Science, therefore, is to organize the verbal and visual symbols for this deductive operation. Its further objectives include the arrangement of the empirical data in such a way as to permit the attainment of what Kenneth Boulding regards as a major objective of Systems Theorists; namely, the transformation of the present aggregation of primarily empirical sciences into "a spectrum of theories--a system of systems."4 This objective has, I believe, been reached in the present model of Unified Science by combining Boulding's two approaches in a concrete, practical way.

He sets them forth as follows: "The first is to look over the empirical universe and pick out certain general phenomena which are found in many different disciplines, . . . to build up general theoretical models relevant to these phenomena. The second approach is to arrange the empirical fields in a hierarchy of organization of their basic `individual' or unit behavior, and . . . to develop a level of abstraction appropriate to each."

These two approaches result in the same thing, Unified Science: The Systems-hierarchy turns out to consist of Major Periods and Periodicity to recur within each Major Period, albeit in ever changing empirical forms. Boulding's two methods are, however, entirely diverse: the first belongs to the inductive-empirical, the second to the deductive-theoretical mode of thought, graphically shown in Figure 5-1.5

These two modes of thought call for diverse kinds of glossary: The inductive-empirical mode calls for the traditional alphabetically ordered kind of glossary; the deductive-theoretical mode calls for a holistic, graphic kind of glossary which permits the various relations of the necessarily complex theoretical construct, Unified Science, to be seen as they must be, simultaneously, each one then being defined in terms of others, as a mathematical equation is first presented in complete form, its components being defined sequentially thereafter.

Accordingly, Unified Science's glossary is presented in two complementary forms: The relational, graphic form for holistic coherence, and the alphabetical form combined with the index, for retrieval and the definition of terms not spelled out in the first form.



(Theoretical Summary.)

A graphic representation of Unified Science results from the execution of Bertalanffy's and Boulding's above proposals, Figures 2-1a and 2-1b. Figures representing six major concepts are listed there sequentially. The main components of each one are then defined verbally as follows:

1) General System is defined verbally and visually, Figure 2-1a. Some of its components are defined in logical sequence.

2) Empirical System: any component of the left-hand column, Figure 2-1b, defined verbally in the alphabetical glossary.

3) System-Hierarchy, abstract (execution of Boulding's "system of systems,") left-hand column of Figure 2-1b, verbally defined here and in the alphabetical glossary.

4) General Periodic Table and the Taxonomic System of Unified Science. Figure 2-13 by Harold G. Cassidy. Verbal definitions of the whole and some of its components follow.

5) Empirical Periodic Table (paradigmatic form), item 3 in the center column of Figure 2-1b, shown in Figure 2-5a.

6) Hierarchy of Empirical Periodic Tables (execution of Boulding's "spectrum of theories" and "levels of theoretical discourse"), right-hand column, Figure 2-1b, and Unified Science chart.



I) General (Theoretical) System (Figure 2-1a)

A space-time region bounded by sharp but not complete breaks of interdependence between its components and their environment, these incompletenesses being inputs and outputs. (E. F. Haskell and H. G. Cassidy, 1963).

a) Interdependence is a relation between two or more entities, where each causation or action produces one or more reactions, retroactions, or feedbacks.

b) Entity: "A thing which has reality and distinctness of being either in fact or for thought; as, to view the state as an entity." Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass., 1957.

c) Habitat: All things affecting an entity and which it affects at the time in question. E. F. Haskell, Ecology 21, 1 (January 1940): "Mathematical Systematization of `Environment,' `Organism,' and `Habitat."'

d) Environment: All things which affect an entity's habitat or are affected by it. (Ibid., and Figure 2-1a.)

e) Output: Energy, material, or information emanating from an entity or system during a given time span.

f) Input: Energy, material, or information entering an entity or system during a given time span.

2) Empirical System

A General System in which the abstract Entity is replaced by an empirical entity, and in which all other abstract components are replaced by empirical components implied by the definitions of habitat and environment. Examples: Any one of the empirical systems represented in the left-hand column of Figure 2-lb.

3) Systems-Hierarchy

"A hierarchy of empirical systems such that each member of the hierarchy (except the first) consists of some or all previous members of the hierarchy, plus one or more entities emerged from the hierarchy, mutually modified." (Formulated jointly by W. V. Quine, H. G. Cassidy, and E. F. Haskell, 1964.)4

    The General Periodic Table (Figures 1-3 and 5-5)

A Systems-Hierarchy such that its emerging entity is its controlling component, that this component's emergence occurs in a regular manner, and that the system's over-all organization is correlated with that of its emergent entity, and varies as it does.7 This is a paraphrasis of the General Periodic Law, R = f ( ).

a) Groups: Classes of organizational relations between the activity of the system's work component X and that of its controller Y, Figures 1-2 and 1-3. There are nine Groups, consisting of the permutations and combinations of +, 0, and - for work component X and controller Y.8 Geometrically, the Groups are classes of directions of the radius vector.

b) Period. (See Figure 2-13.) A numbered category of all natural systems classifications, whose number is equal to the number of Strata (q.v.) comprising the system in question.

c) Stratum. (See Figure 2-13.) A numbered category of all natural systems classifications. In atoms, for instance, the electron shells; in human cultures, the social strata.

d) Sub-Stratum: The developmental or ontogenetic stage of any individual member of a Stratum. For any given Stratum, the theoretically possible number of Sub-Strata is equal to the Stratum's own number (Figure 2-13.) This holds true for all Periodic Tables shown in the fold-out chart at the rear.

e) The Taxonomic System of unified science presupposes and includes the taxonomies of all the empirical sciences some of which, however, classify just system parts. It combines and orders these systems-theoretically and geometrically by means of Characteristic Numbers, as proposed by Leibniz in 1677.9 Sub-Stratum, Stratum, Period, and Kingdom (or Major Stratum) jointly define a System's scalar location R, its outward position on the radius vector (see below); while Group defines the vector's direction. Any System's position in the Periodic coordinate system (Figure 5-5) may thus be rendered conveniently as follows:

E, S-S K G

where E is the entity's traditional taxonomic designation.

K is its Kingdom or Major Stratum within the Systems-hierarchy
P is its Period within its Major Stratum
S is its Stratum within its Period
G is its Group within the Periodic coordinate system

The first four geometric parameters (K through S-S) define the entity's scalar position Ro and are written with Arabic numerals. The fifth parameter, G (Group), defines its radial position , and is written with a Roman numeral, following the tradition established by D. I. Mendeleev.--When it is more convenient to write characteristic numbers sequentially, rather than in the pattern above, that order may be preferred.

5) The Paradigmatic Empirical Periodic Table

Figure II-5a and b, the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. In this Systems-Hierarchy the controlling component, whose emergence is strategic, is the nucleus. Its emergence occurs in expanding quasar shells by sequential additions of one proton. And in this System's (the atom's) over-all organization, the structures of both its nucleus and of its work component the electron cloud, are correlated with the quantized emergence of the nucleus, and vary as it does. (Paraphrasis of Mendeleev's Periodic Law.)

P) Period: The class of atoms having any given number of Strata (nuclear and electron-cloud shells) in common.
S) Stratum: A nuclear shell, an electron shell, and usually both together.
S-S) Sub-Stratum: A set of states which may be assumed by entities comprising any given Stratum.
G) Groups: Classes of organizational relations between the atom (entity) and its habitat. (Sets of chemical properties.)

Notation: All characteristic numbers in which K = 2 (the second Major Stratum).

6) Hierarchy of Empirical Periodic Tables

Right-hand column in fold-out Unified Science chart, (fold-out chart situated at the end) ; also in Figure 5-5.

Just as the graphic representation of the classes of empirical systems forms a Systems-Hierarchy ("system-of systems"), so that of their Periodic classifications forms a Systems-Hierarchy of Periodic Tables ("spectrum of theories") . This hierarchy will eventually display seven; perhaps even eight members if patrons are verified. They constitute the Systems-Theoretic counterpart of what are traditionally called natural kingdoms and we call Major Strata. The symbol proposed for them is therefore K.

    K 1) Periodic Table of Stable Particles. (It has 1 Stratum, 1 Period: Alpha coordinate system in fold-out chart.)
    K 2) Periodic Table of Chemical Elements: Periodic coordinate system, Table of Atoms.
    K 3) Predicted Periodic Table of molecules.
    K 4) Predicted Periodic Table of geoid systems.
    K 5) Periodic Table of Biopetic Ecosystems (Phylogeny of the cell by H. G. Cassidy) extends into the Periodic Tables of Plant Ecosystems.
    K 6) Periodic Table of Animal Ecosysteme.
    K 7) Periodic Table of Human Cultures.

7) Role of Traditional Tasonomies (Figure 2-1b, center column).

This Deductive-Theoretical Glossary sums up the present execution of Bertalanffy's program for General Systems Theory.l This result was obtained by combining the two methods which Boulding proposed, and apparently results in a model of his system-of systems and spectrum-of theories.2

Accordingly, the Periodic coordinate system's coordinates, scalar and polar, represent levels of organization, whose lower limit Alpha is the point of maximum disorganization and whose upper limit Omega is the region of maximum organization, Figure 5-5.

Between these limits are ranged the entities represented in all three columns of Figure 2-1b: material entities in the left-hand column, unassembled theoretical sub-assemblies in the center, and assembled sub-assemblies in the right-hand column. Their build-ups and breakdowns can be represented, diagnosed, predicted, prescribed; and executed in terms of the Periodic coordinate system, and the results compared with the theoretical realities in question. This provides the general background theory and meta-language which permit the reform of the crisis-ridden Multiversity into the New University, Figures 4-9 and 4-11. For the boundaries between the natural kingdoms, between the disciplines describing them, and the information and organization distributed among these boundaries are hereby assembled into the panmathic discipline, Unified Science, obtained by executing von Bertalanffy's and Boulding's proposals.



1. Adapted from the Glossary Proposal for General Systems Theory. This proposal was originally drawn up by a vocabulary committee consisting of George J. Klir and Edward Haskell. This committee was set up at New Haven in November 1968 by the Task Force on General Systems Education of the Society for General Systems Research, chaired by Jere W. Clark.--This paper with the kind consent of Dr. Klir and Dr. Cassidy.
2. Historically, this model executes logically similar, but less well formulated proposals: it was completed before the present proposals' publication in 1968.
3. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, "General Systems Theory A Critical Review" in Modern Systems Researck for the Behavioral Scientist, Walter Buckley, Ed., Aldine, Chicago, 1968.
4. Kenneth E. Boulding, "General Systems Theory-The Skeleton of Science " in Modern Systems Research for the Behauioral Scientist.
5. James B. Conant, Two Modes of Thought--My Encounters with Science and Education, R. N. Anshen, ed., Trident Press, New York, 1964.
6. This appears to be a novel kind of glossary. If it needs justification, this may be found in Imagery and Verbal Processes by Allan Paivio, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1971.
7. This concept was formulated by John Stuart Mill in 1868 in his Philosophy, Ratiocinative and Inductiuve, under the term Natural Classification. The following year Mendeleev and Maier discovered the first empirical Periodic Table independently of him and of each other. Four more natural classifications were discovered a little less than a century later, and two missing ones predicted, Unified Science Chart.
8. In empirical cases Periods do not necessarily consist of 9 Groups: There are Periods in which some Groups are omitted (the first in the Chemical Table has 2 Groups); some in which Groups are duplicated (e.g., the "long" atomic Periods). The General Periodic Table, however, (Figure I-3), is basic to the understanding of General Groups and Periods.
8. Leibniz Selections, Philip P. Wiener, editor, Scribners, New York, 1951 (PP~ 12-25).


Pages 215-222


Abiotic (adj.) Non living. The class of systems which includes particles, atoms, molecules, and geoid (q.v.) systems. C.f. Biotic, cultural.
Abstraction ceiling The highest abstraction-level (q.v.). In ontogeny, the abstraction ceiling is the individual's highest level at the time in question, and is indicated at the left of his Characteristic Number (q.v.). The Stratum ceiling is the highest level reached by the average Stratum member, and is indicated at the top of his characteristic Number. The Period ceiling is the highest level reached by the Period's top Stratum, and is indicated at the bottom of the characteristic number. (See Figure IV-2.)
Abstraction, levels of In sentient systems (res cogitans), which conduct simulation of systems behavior, the controller reflects upon, abstracts simulated outputs (see Feedback, double, triple, etc.), then abstracts simulation of its reflection, and so forth in an abstraction hierarchy. This is a Systems-hierarchy (q.v.) composed of levels of abstraction. (See Feedback, double, triple, etc.)
Allopathy (n.) (Greek for "making the other sick"; coined term) The coaction (q.v.) in which the activity of the system's work component (q.v.) is unaffected, but that of its controller (q.v.) is decreased. Allopathy, written ( 0 , - ), is the characteristic of Group I in all Periodic Tables. (It was first discovered theoretically, then empirically.)
Allotrophy (n.) (Greek for "feeding the other; coined term) The coaction (q.v.) in which the activity of the system's work component (q.v.) is not affected while that of the controller is intensified. Allotrophy is written ( 0 , + ). It is the characteristic of Group V in all Periodic Tables. (It was first discovered theoretically, then found empirically in animal and human ecosystems, q.v.).
Alpha, The point of minimum organization or maximum disorganization. The symbol situated at the center or origin of the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.); its lower limit. C.f. Omega
Alpha coordinate system (coined term) The coordinate system which forms the transition between the Periodic and the Inverted Periodic coordinate systems (q.v. and Figure II-10). The Cartesian coordinate system with coordinate axes reversed, into which the Periodic table of stable particles (q.v.) can be mapped.
Amensalism (n.) (coined term,) The coaction (q.v.) in which the activity of the work component (q.v.) is decreased while that of the controller is not affected. Amensalism, written ( - , 0 ), is the characteristic of Group VII in all Periodic Tables. (It was first discovered theoretically, then empirically.)
Atropy (n.) (coined term) Stability; neither increasing nor decreasing organization (q.v.) C.f. Entropy, Ectropy.
Atropy, circle of See Reference zero.
Background theory (term coined by W. V. Quine 1969) An abstract theory from which diverse, less abstract theories can be inferred. Conversely, a theory implicit in diverse less abstract theories.
Being, extensive (Res extensa) Having extension, number, speed, velocity, mass, momentum. In general, the class of abiotic and low biotic systems (q.v.). C.f. Being, sentient, Res cogitans.
Being (n.) sentient. (Res cogitans) Sentience is the capacity of a being or system to simulate systems behavior, as also to simulate simulation; that is, to simulate the behavior of sentient systems, living or mechanical, such as computers. Sentient systems thus form a systems-hierarchy (q.v.) such, that each higher member of the hierarchy accurately simulates the behavior of lower members than itself. (See Simulation.) The hierarchy evolves by emergence (through mutation, maturation, training or invention) of ever higher levels of abstraction (q.v.). Simulation of the behavior of higher by lower members of the hierarchy is called mimesis (q.v.). The part of the universe excluded from Western science in the l7th century by mutual consent of scientists and theologians.
Biocenose (n.) A living community, usually including abiotic, plant and animal components. (See Biome, Ecosystem.)
Biome (n.) A major community of living organisms; a complex of mature communities of plants and animals in a major region, as tundra, forest, grassland.
Biotic (adj.) Living (viral, plant, animal, or human). C.f. Abiotic, cultural.
Breakdown Sudden decrease of organization (q.v.). C.f. Disintegration.
Characterlstic, Universal The characteristics which all systems (q.v.), especially all natural systems, have in common. Term coined by Leibniz ca. 1677, who predicted that the universal characteristic would be formulated geometrically. This prediction appears to have been fulfilled by the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.) which purports to be a model (q.v.) of the universal characteristic.
Characteristic number (See Number, characteristic).
Circle of atropy (coined term) Any one of the hierarchy of concentric circles centered at Alpha, the origin of the Periodic coordinate System (q.v.). Geometrically, a circle relative to which entropy and ectropy (q.v.) can be defined and represented. The region in which the ( 0 , 0 ) Group (q.v.) of every Period is mapped. Hence, it is also called the zero-zero circle or the scalar zero circle.
Class conflict (n.) Synnecrosis, predation or parasitism (q.v.) between a civilization's Majority or work component (q.v.) and its Minority or controller (q.v.). A set of coactions typical of a culture's breakdown and disintegration (q.v. ); of its Alpha-ward devolution (q.v.). The condition typical of Dionysian cultures; e.g. the Kwakiutl Indians or current Northern Ireland. In Marxist theory, "All of recorded history is the history of class conflict". This misinterpretation of history results from this theory's negative value-bias (q.v.). C.f. Front, horizontal.
Class cooperation (n.) Symbiosis (q.v.) between a civilization's Majority or work component (q.v.) and its Minority or controller (q.v.). This coaction (q.v.) is essential to a culture's genesis, stability and upward (Omega-ward, q.v.) development. The normal condition of Apollonian cultures; e.g. the Pueblo Indians or modern Switzerland. (See Figure V-4). A condition termed "impossible" by Marxist theory, because the negative value-bias (q.v.) of its formal structure makes it (subjectively) "impossible". C.f. Front, vertical; "Classless" society; contrast with Class conflict; Front, horizontal.
“Classless" society (n.) Marxist concept of a "future state of society" in which Majority or work component (q.v.) and Minority or controller (q.v.) are affirmed to "disappear". This concept, which contradicts systems theory and cybernetics and has no empirical support, was substituted for the concept of class cooperation (q.v.) because the negative value-bias (q.v.) of Marxist theory precludes the concept of class cooperation or symbiosis (q.v.). "Classless" society therefore is always said to exist in the "future". Existing socialist societies are necessarily governed by a controlling class. (See Milovan Djilas' New Class.) But since the possibility of class cooperation is precluded by the incorrect structure of Marxist theory (see Chapter V), this controller is given another name: "Vanguard of the Proletariat". Workers who revolt against this controller, called Leftists, are especially strong in France.
Coaction (n.) Any of the nine theoretically possible types of relation between a system's work component and controller in regard to any given activity or goal (Tel). Coaction is defined as the direction of any given system's radius vector. C.f. Coaction compass; Value, moral.Goaction (n.) Any of the nine theoretically possible types of relation between a system's work component and controller in regard to any given activity or goal (Tel). Coaction is defined as the direction of any given system's radius vector. C.f. Coaction compass; Value, moral.
Coaction Cardioid The generally heart-shaped path of the radius vector in the Periodic Coordinate System, whose equation is R = f ( ). (C.f. Periodic Law, General). The coaction cardioid turns into the zero-zero or scalar zero circle (q.v.) in the region of predominantly negative coactions (inturning, in Greek, is entropy) toward Alpha; and turns out of the circle in the region of predominantly positive coactions (turning out, in Greek, is ectropy, q.v.) toward Omega (q.v.). The coaction cardioid thus crosses the circle of atropy (q.v.) twice.
Coaction Compass A geometric coordinate system which defines the nine possible coactions and shows the relations between them. C.f. Periodic Coordinate System.
Commensalism (n.) (Latin for togetherness at the table) The coaction (q.v.) in which the activity or goal-achievement of the system's work component (q.v.) is intensified while that of its controller is not affected. Commensalism, written ( - , 0 ), is the characteristic of Group III of all Periodic Tables.
Complexity The property of having intricate structure and operation, predisposing a system to breakdown (q.v.). A condition of a system requiring continuous organization (q.v.) in the form of servicing and maintenance. Hence often confused with organization, especially by social scientists.
Complexity The property of having intricate structure and operation, predisposing a system to breakdown (q.v.). A condition of a system requiring continuous organization (q.v.) in the form of servicing and maintenance. Hence often confused with organization, especially by social scientists.
Control (n.) The converse of function in the systemic and mathematical sense (q.v.). E.g. If R = f ( ) then has or is the control of R: = c ( R ). Control is to "Dominate, command; hold in check (oneself, one's anger); check, verify". Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1942. Human control may occur through wisdom, persuasion, deception, conviction, the ballot, or physical force. It is displayed by the Minority (q.v.), whether Capitalist, Communist, fascist, Social Capitalist (q.v.), or other. C.f. Controller; Moral force.
Controller (n.) The component in a cybernetic system which reacts to a change in the output, providing a signal that alters the output toward the system's established goal. The more strategic entity in an ordinated relationship (q.v.) between the two basic components of cybernetic systems, the less strategic being its work component. C.f. Control, Ordination, Work component, Strategicity.
Coordinate system Coordinates are numbered points on a straight line or axis. A coordinate system can be one-dimensional, e.g. the (spurious) political "spectrum"; two-dimensional, e.g. rectangularly crossed X and Y axes; three-dimensional, e.g. rectangularly crossed X, Y and Z axes; and so on to n-dimensional. C.f. Periodic coordinate system.
Cultural (adj.) (human). C.f. Abiotic, Biotic.
Cybernetics (n.) The science of behavior, communication, control and organization (q.v.) in organisms, machines, societies and other systems. Its salient characteristic is feedback or retroaction (q.v.).
Devolution (n.) Degenerative development, gradual or sudden, toward a lower level of organization; geometrically, in the direction of Alpha (in the Periodic coordinate system). C.f. Breakdown, Disintegration.
Disintegration (n.) The transmutation of a system, such that it ceases to exist and appears as disintegration products; that is to say, into systems belonging to one or more Periods or Major Periods (q.v.) lower in the systems-hierarchy (q.v.).
Ecology (n.) The science dealing with ecosystems: Entity-habitat systems with imputs from and outputs to their environments (q.v.).
Ecogeny (n.) Formative change or development of ecosystems.
Ectropy (n.) (Term coined by W. V. Quine, 1969.) Increasing organization. In Greek, ectropy means turning out. Increasing ectropy is represented in Periodic geometry (q.v.) by the coaction cardioid's (q.v.) turning out of the referencezero circle (q.v.). (See also Entropy, Atropy.)
Effector, Constancy A cybernetic system which holds close to a norm or constant goal. C.f. Tendency Effector.
Pierre de Latil Thinking by Machine--A Study of Cybernetics. Saunders, London, 1968.
Effector, Tendency A cybernetic system which tends away from its norm toward a maximum or a minimum, e.g. an atomic bomb. C.f. Effector, constancy.
Pierre de Latil Thinking by Machine--A Study of Cybernetics. Saunders, London, 1968.
Empire, natural (coined term) A member of the system-hierarchy of empirical systems (Fig. II-1b) consisting of ("containing") all lower members of the hierarchy plus an emerged controller. Each natural Empire or Major Period (q.v.) bears the name of its highest major Stratum (q.v.) or natural kingdom (q.v.). Thus, the natural Empire of man is his ecosystem, the solar system.
Entropy (n.) Increasing disorganisation. In Greek, turning in. See Coaction cardioid; Ectropy, Atropy.
Environment (n.) In Unified Science, all things which effect or are effected by the component of a system called habitat (q.v.)--C.f. Figure II-la. Thus, environment bears the same relation to habitat which habitat bears to entity, generating a regressive series of ecosystems (q.v.) whose empirical limit is an ecosystem with unorganizedp articles as entity, Alpha as habitat (q.v.).
Evolution (n.) The change, gradual or sudden, of any entity's organization (q.v.) in the direction of higher organization. See Ectropy, Omega. See also Devolution.
Evolution, abiotic Evolution (q.v.) of non-living systems such as atoms, molecules or geoid systems. See fold-out chart and Figure II-2.
Evolution, Bio- Evolution (q.v.) of biotic or livng systems.
Exploitation (n.) A popular but operationally inconstant term used to denote both predation (q.v.) and parasitism (q.v.). Sometimes even extended to X-aggerated symbiosis ( + > + ) and Y-aggerated symbiosis ( + < + ) .
Feedback (n.) The returning of a portion of the output of a system to the input for purposes of control. Negative feedback directs the output closer to the system's goal or norm. (See Constancy effector.) Positive feedback directs the output away from the goal, toward infinity or zero. (See Tendency effector). Synonym: retroaction. These definitions are by Pierre de Latil (Thinking by Machine).
Feedback, double, triple, etc. A closed system of simulated responses which enables a system to reflect upon perceived phenomena and also upon the simulated actions called thoughts. In this manner, a number of possible actions can be imagined and the best one implemented: the one which will presumably come closest to the system's goal. Feedbacks may be double, triple, quadruple, etc., according to the number of levels of abstraction involved. C.f. Abstraction, levels of.
Feedback, negative Feedback which decreases the deviation of a system's output from its norm or goal. C.f. Constancy effector.
Feedback, positive Feedback which amplifies the deviation of a system's output from its norm or goal. C.f. Tendency effector.
Feed-forth (n.) (term coined by W. V. Quine.) A signal generated by a system which changes its norm or goal (usually by changing the habitat). E.g. in biotic succession (q.v.) each stage of the System-hierarchy (q.v.) prepares the habitat by feed-forth for the next stage.
Fouling (of information) (n.) Operational inconstancy of signals which diminishes, or destroys the information they convey. C.f. Signal, Noise.
Framework (n.) (of a Periodic table) The formal structure which all Periodic Tables have in common.
Front, horizontal (coined term) A split in a society between work component (q.v.) or lower Strata (q.v.) and controller (q.v.) or upper Strata (q.v.). The front formed by class conflict (q.v.). In anthropology, horizontal schizmogenesis (Gregory Bateson), which results in social disintegration. The method by which Marxists seek to alienate a society's work component (q.v.) from its controller (q.v.), and then to take its place. Compare with Front, vertical.
Front, vertical (coined term) A split in a society from top to bottom such, that a part of the work component (q.v.) and of the controller (q.v.) remains intact on each side of the vertical front. In anthropology, vertical schizmogenesis (Gregory Bateson), which results in regeneration of society. The method by which Social Capitalists (q.v.) transform exploiters (predators or parasites, q.v.) into symbionts or class cooperators (q.v.), thereby preventing class conflict (q.v.) and building stable and healthy societies and ecosystems. E.g. modern Switzerland. C.f. Social capital. Compare with Front, horizontal.
Function (n.) "Activity proper to anything, mode of action by which it fulfils its purpose . . . (math.) variable quantity in relation to other(s) in terms of which it may be expressed or on which its value depends." Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1942. The converse of control (q.v.).
Galaxy (n.) The category whose members are the largest known material components of the universe. The highest known stage in the development of a quasar (q.v.). (See Figure II-1b.)
Genesis of civilization (Ref. Toynbee, A. J.) The state of a human society in which the prevalent subjective coaction (q.v.) between Majority or work component (q.v.) and Minority or controller (q.v.) is positive (q.v.): the state called trust, confidence, class cooperation (q.v.). During genesis, a society is characterized by stability and upward development (q.v.). Genesis of society is always characterized by a public philosophy (q.v.) with a positive value bias (q.v.).
Geoid (adj.) (Term coined by W. V. Quine, 1969) The class of systems (the Major Stratum q.v.) occupying the position in the System hierarchy (q.v.) between molecules and plant ecosystems. Among its members are inter-stellar gas clouds, stars, meteors and solar systems. A Periodic table of geoid systems is predicted.
Group (with capital G) (n.) Originally, any one of the columns of the Periodic table of chemical elements, (q.v.), all of whose entries have chemical properties in common. Here extended to, all Periodic tables, abiotic, biotic, and cultural (q.v.), and the Periodic coordinate system into which they map sequentially. (See fold-out chart).
Habitat (n.) (Definition by Haskell, 1940) In Unified Science, all things which affect or are affected by an entity (q.v.) comprise its habitat. Habitat and entity together comprise the ecosystem (q.v.). C.f. Environment.
Homeostasis (n.) Maintenance of conditions in a constant state; e.g. the temperature or humidity of a system. C.f. Constancy effector, Negative feed-back.
Information (n.) Structure or organization transmitted by means of a signal (q.v.).
Kind, natural (term coined by W.V. Quine, 1969) A class of natural systems.
Kingdom, natural A large category of traditional science. In Unified Science, the Major Strata (q.v.): 1 particles, 2 atoms, 3 molecules, 4 geoid systems, 5 plant ecosystems, 6 animal ecosystems, 7 human cultures. In the Characteristic Number (q.v.), the central number. C.f. Stratum, major; compare with Period, major; Kind, natural.
Law, General Periodic R = f ( ) where R is the length of the radius vector and represents the system's properties, and is the radius vector's direction and represents the system's coaction or value-bias (q.v.). Also called the Moral Law.
Mimesis (n.) (Ref. Toynbee, A. J., A Study of History) Simulation, within a Systems-hierarchy (q.v.), of the behavior of higher members by lower members of the hierarchy. Since lower members by definition lack the structure which enacts the system's highest levels of abstraction (q.v.), mimesis is confined to those aspects of behavior which lie beneath their abstraction ceiling (q.v.). Mimesis is seen by higher members of the hierarchy as inept, valuable, dangerous, ludicrous, cute, etc. depending upon the situation. None the less, mimesis is essential to the coherence and operation of societies in all human Periods: Even in the lowest, it characterizes much activity of children and young people (lower Sub-strata).--Understanding of mimesis by the top Strata is important to society's control, confidence and trust (q.v.), which are necessary conditions for social stability and Omega-ward development. C.f. Class cooperation, Symbiosis, vertical Front.
Minority, creative A controlling class in a society which cooperates with the society's working class, thereby either transmuting the whole society to a higher Period (q.v.) or forming a vertical front (q.v.) and transforming predation and parasitism (q.v.) into symbiosis (q.v.). Term coined by Arnold Toynbee. C.f. Minority, dominant, Control, function.
Minority, dominant A controlling class in a society which exploits the society's working class, preparing conditions for the formation of a horizontal front (q.v.) and disintegration (q.v.) of society. Term coined by Arnold Toynbee. C.f. Minority, creative, Control.
Model (n.) The result of the simulation (q.v.) of an idea or object. Example: The Periodic coordinate system is a model of Leibniz's Universal Characteristic (q.v.). Also, and conversely, the object of simulation, as in the prototype model of a car or aeroplane.
Moral force The capacity to direct or orient a system's coactions (q.v.) or quality (q.v.), thereby to control its properties (q.v.) C.f. Moral Law, Periodic Law, General.
Moral Law The general law of which Mendelee'v Periodic Law is the special atomic case. Traditionally, "As ye plant, so shall ye reap." Cybernetically, "The properties of systems are functions of coaction," (q.v.). C.f. Moral force, Quality, Quantity.
Noise (n.) As used in information theory: impurities in a signal (q.v.), including fouling (q.v.), which diminish or eliminate its information (q.v.).
Number, characteristic Originally proposed by Leibniz (1677). The elementary unit of the taxonomic system of Unified Science. Any entity may be classified, and its data retrieved, by means of its Characteristic number. This consists of the five parameters which map it into the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.). These parameters are: K (the entity's natural kingdom or Major Stratum, and thus its Periodic table), P (its Period in its own Periodic table), S (its top Stratum or ontogenetic ceiling), S-S (its sub-Stratum or ontogenetic stage at the time in question), and G (its Group or characteristic coaction at that time). (See these glossary entries).
Number system, Natural The number system of the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.). The oldest number system, which originally began with 1, and extended to, positive infinity. Today it begins with zero. C.f. Number system, Real.
Number system, Real The number system of the cartesian and the Alpha coordinate systems (q.v.). The number system brought by Arabs from India to the West. It includes zero and both positive and negative numbers. C.f. Number system, natural.
Omega, The outer limit of the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.). The point of maximum organization (q.v.). Originally proposed by Teilhard de Chardin as the state toward which evolution is directed. Compare with Alpha.
Ontogeny, (n.) Development of the individual organism--plant, animal, or human--from zygote (q.v.) to death. C.f. Ontogeny, stage, ceiling of.
Ontogeny, ceiling of The highest stage in the individual's or entity's ontogeny or life-development--whether human, animal, plant, geoid, molecule, atom or particle. This ceiling determines the individual's Stratum (q.v.).
Ontogeny, stage of Development stage of the individual or entity (particle, atom, molecule, geoid system, plant, animal, or person) . In all cases, the individual's ontogeny recapitulates its species' evolution or phylogeny (q.v.). This is a concrete formulation of Haeckel's Law, "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". C.f. Substratum and Ontogeny, ceiling of. Note, however, that specifically human ontogenetic stages, as here expounded and numbered, are mental. (C.f. Abstraction, levels of.) Preceding stages, those of embryonic development, are shared with the highest animals.
Ordination (coined term as here used) (n.) The relation of greater, equal, or less, whose mathematical symbol is the combination of < or > and =; namely < = >. Ordination is particularly relevant to the relation of work component and controller in a system, because of its immediate relation to the General Periodic Law (q.v.).--If coaction is positive and ordinatlon is upward, (such that lower Strata and Sub-strata are acting as work component X, higher as controller Y ( X < Y )), the system is in the state of evolution or genesis (q.v.). If ordination is equal or downward ( X >= Y ), the system is in the state of devolution; of breakdown or disintegration (q.v.)--This is a paraphrasis of the Second Periodic Law*, of which the Second Law of Thermodynamics is the special case ( X >= Y )--Systems which appear to have no work component or controller may thus be viewed as members of a second special case ( X = Y ). The third case ( X < Y ) involves increasing organization or ectropy (q.v.).
*R = f ( < = > ), where R is the property called volution, the class whose members are evolution, devolution, stability.
Organization This property of systems is so fundamental as to be logically undefinable. It is the condition whose satisfaction by any set of system-components results in the next higher member of the System-hierarchy (q.v.); and whose non-satisfaction breaks it down into component systems lower in the hierarchy. Hence its theoretical maximum and minimum--called Alpha and Omega (q.v.)--constitute the limits of the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.), the framework of Unified Science--Often confused with complexity, q.v.
Parasitism (n.) As used in Unified Science, the coaction in which the activity of the system's work component (q.v.) is increased while that of its controller (q.v.) is decreased. Parasitism, written ( + , - ), is the characteristic of Group II in all Periodic Tables. Noisy Synonym (c.f. Noise): exploitation.
Period (with capital P) (n.) (1) The scientific version of recurrences noted by poets and philosophers both in nature and in human history. (2) In the seven Periodic Tables (q.v.), the rows composed of the Groups (q.v.) (D. I. Mendeleev, 1869.) (3) In the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.), the concentric reference-zero circles (q.v.) and their accompanying coaction cardioids (q.v.). C.f. Period, major.
Period, major (coined term) An entire Periodic Table, which constitutes a Major Period of the Major Periodic Table (q.v.). See Empire, natural; compare with Kingdom, natural and Stratum, Major.
Periodic coordinate system The coordinate system of Unified Science. (See Chapters I and II). Obtained by generalization of the Periodic Table of chemical elements. The coordinate system into which all Periodic Tables (q.v.) can be mapped hierarchically.
Periodic geometry The geometry related to the coordinate systems of unified science and represented by the Periodic, the Alpha and the Inverted Periodic coordinate systems (q.v.). Generated by combining cybernetic with geometric principles.
Periodic Law, chemical The properties of the chemical elements are Periodic functions of their atomic numbers. (D. I. Mendeleev, 1869). A special case of the General Periodic Law (q.v.).
Periodic Law, General R = f ( ), where R = length of the radius vector and = radius angle. Stated in words: the properties of systems are functions of their coactions (q.v.). Synonym: The Moral Law of Unified Science. See Periodic Law, chemical.
Periodic Table, empirical A Table or framework (q.v.), into which has been mapped a natural kind (q.v.) of type specimens (q.v.). E.g. The Periodic Table of chemical elements, of animal ecosystems, or of human cultures. C.f. Periodic Table, General.
Periodic Table, General (capitalized) A table whose columns are Groups (q.v.) and whose rows are Periods (q.v.), and which may include Strata and Sub-Strata (q.v.). Sometimes called the framework of the Periodic Table (q.v.). C.f. Numbers, Characteristic; also, Periodic Table, empirical, Major
Periodic Table, Major The Periodic Table of unified Science whose Periods are called Major Periods (q.v.) and are represented by Periodic Tables (q.v.).
Periodic table of stable particles (coined term) The Periodic table whose Groups contain the four stable pro-particles, four stable anti-particles, and the photon which is its own antiparticle. C.f. Alpha coordinate system.
Phylogeny (n. ) Development of a species--plant, animal, or human--from emergence to extinction C f ontogeny.
Predation (n.) The coaction (q.v.) in which the activity of the system's work component is decreased while that of its controller is increased. Predation, written ( - , + ), is the characteristic of Group VI in all Periodic Tables. Noisy synonym (C.f. noise): exploitation.
Properties, systemic A system's pro-properties are directly ascertainable and vary from one Major Stratum to another (q.v.). E.g. the properties of the chemical elements, of animal ecosystems, of human cultures. A system's properties are functions of the system's quality (q.v.). C.f. Periodic Law, chemical, General; Moral Law.
Public philosophy (Ref. Lippmann, Walter, The Public Philosophy.) A society's commonly shared world view. The higher the society's Period, the more forms its public philosophy must display: A different form for each Stratum. Coexistence of these different forms of the public philosophy depends upon the emergence of coherent Systems theory, complete with glossary, permitting translations between the diverse forms of the public philosophy. Unified science, religion and political ideology thus comprise the public philosophy of the Space Age. (Ref., Haskell, E. F.).
Quasar (quasi stellar object) (n.) The first known stage in the development (ontogeny, q.v.) of a galaxy. The population of atoms emerges in the quasar's expanding spheroidal shells. (See Figs. II-2 and II-1b) C.f. Galaxy.
Quality (n.) A system's quality is the principal coaction (q.v.) of its work component and controller (q.v.), and determines the system's properties (q.v.). Quality is geometrically represented as the radius vector's direction, appears in all Periodic tables as the Groups or columns, and is represented in Characteristic Numbers (q.v.) by the Roman numeral. C.f. Quantity, Periodic Law, chemical, General; Moral Law.
Quantity A system's quantity or) size) is equal to the cumulative sum of its Sub-strata, Strata (or Periods), and Major Strata (q.v.), represented by the four Arabic numerals in all Characteristic Numbers (q.v.). It is geometrically represented as the radius vector's length (q.v.), and appears in all Periodic tables as the rows or Periods. C.f. quality Periodic Law, General; Moral Law.
Recapitulation (n.) (As here used, coined by Ernst Haeckel ca. 1905.) Pertaining to the theory that individual life history (ontogeny, q.v.) enacts certain stages in the life history of the species (phylogeny, q.v.).
The individuals in question may be abiotic, plant, animal or human.
Radius vector (n.) A vector (q.v.) extending outward from the origin or center of a coordinate system. In the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.), the radius vector's direction defines the coaction or quality (q.v.) of the system in question--which in turn determine its properties (q.v.)--while its length defines the system's quantity or size (q.v.). C.f. Periodic Law, General.
Reference zero (term coined by H. G. Cassidy, 1972) The point or, in the Periodic coordinate system, the circle relative to which positive and negative qualities (q.v.) or coactions (q.v.) can be defined.
Retrogression (n.) Devolution to a lower, less complex type of individual or race; or type of behavior. C.f. Disintegration.
Scalar zero circle (coined term) See Circle of atropy, and Zero-zero circle.
Schizmogenesis (n.) (Term coined by Gregory Bateson. ) Creation of a split in a system. Horizontal schizmogenesis splits the work component from the controller and results in mutilated components. Vertical schizmogenesis splits both controller and work component, resulting in two healthy daughter systems. (Gregory Bateson, Naven). C.f. Front, vertical, horizontal.
Science, Unified A new discipline, popularly known as Unisci. Obtained by mapping the data of the physical, biological and psychosocio-political sciences into the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.). Proposed by Leibniz under the term Scientia Generalis 1677.
Selectee (n.) The entity selected. An organism selected for survival by its habitat (q.v.). Equally, a habitat selected by an organism. See Selector.
Selector (n.) The selecting entity. A habitat which selects an organism for survival. Equally, an organism which selects a habitat (q.v.).
Signal (n.) A physical carrier o information. A communications input into a system which changes its behavior or prevents change which would otherwise occur. Signals vary from level to level of the System-hierarchy (q.v.): Below the level of sentient beings (q.v.), power signals and communication signals are identical. Above the lowest level of sentient beings (which include higher animals) the ratio or signal input to control output increases in quantum jumps form level to level of abstraction. (See Abstraction, levels of).
Signalloid (adj.) (coined term.) An organism that is capable of receiving signals at a distance. Criterion of the second and higher Periods of animal ecosystems.
Signalzoa (n.) (coined term) Animals that use light, heat, chemicals, etc. as information to approach or avoid things, rather than as sources of energy only. C.f. Signaloid, Beings, sentient.
Simulation (n.) The matching of a system's structure or behavior by another system such, that some degree of isomorphy or structural correspondence of the two behaviors or structures results. (See Model, Modelling.) Simulation differs from duplication (q.v.) in that the medium in which, and method by which, the model is simulated is different from the materials of which the model is composed or enacted, and the method by which it was developed. In duplication, materials and methods are substantially the same in all resultant isomorphic systems. Simulation can be techno-logical (primarily controlled by mind) or techno-genetic (primarily controlled by the genetic apparatus) . Some insects simulate plants technogenetically. Some computers simulate webs of life (q.v.) technologically. (See Technology, Technogeny.)
Social Capital (term coined by Gottlieb Duttweiler ca. 1935) A free-enterprise or capitalist economy displaying a vertical front (q.v.). Here, one side of the vertical front is traditionally capitalistic, displaying both predation and parasitism, (q.v.); the other side is symbiotic (q.v.) or class-cooperative. It is controlled by a creative Minority (q.v.) and competes with the part of society controlled by the dominant Minority (q.v.), forcing it into class cooperation ( - , + ) ( + , + ) or ( + , - ) ( + , + ). Social capital is a peaceful and sucessful alternative to socialism. C.f. Schizmogenesis, Front, vertical, Front, horizontal.
Strata (written with a capital S) The layers of levels in a system whose number determines the system's Period number. E.g. in atoms, the number of the atom's electron shells; in plant ecosystems, the number of the ecosystem's plant divisions. In each case, Period 3 has 3 Strata: in atoms, the K, L, M shells; in plant ecosystems, the algal, moss, and fern Strata. To be clearly distinguished from merely geographic strata (written with a small s), as in geologic strata or the strata of a forest. (See Sub-strata, Periods. Also Numbers, Characteristic.)
Strategicity (n.) (coined term) The quality of an entity within a system, of being so related to the other entities in it that a relatively small amount of energy produces a relatively great effect. Control is thus proportional to strategicity. C.f. Controller, Work component, Moral force.
Stratum, Major Synonymous with natural kingdom (q.v.) and represented by a Periodic Table (q.v.). C.f. Kingdom, natural.
Stratum, potential The individual's highest inborn ontogenetic stage (q.v.) or ceiling (q.v.); the genetic capacity whose realization, in living things, requires suitable habitat (q.v.) conditions to become actual or kinetic. In azoic systems, of course, the same. C.f. Habitat, Environment; compare with Stratum, social, human.
Stratum, social, human The human individual's social Stratum is originally determined by his parents and other relatives. His potential Stratum is mainly determined by his ontogenetic ceiling (q.v. ) . Hence he may move socially up or down during his lifetime. Thomas Jefferson distinguished the highest social Stratum as "artificial", the highest potential as "natural" aristocracy. These terms, however, are noisy. C.f. Noise, ontogeny, ceiling of; Stratum, potential.
Stratum, social, human The human individual's social Stratum is originally determined by his parents and other relatives. His potential Stratum is mainly determined by his ontogenetic ceiling (q.v. ) . Hence he may move socially up or down during his lifetime. Thomas Jefferson distinguished the highest social Stratum as "artificial", the highest potential as "natural" aristocracy. These terms, however, are noisy. C.f. Noise, ontogeny, ceiling of; Stratum, potential.
Sub-strata (plural of Stratum, written with a capital S) The ontogenetic layers or levels in a system whose ceiling number (q.v.) determines the number of the Stratum in question. (See Strata). E.g., in plants, animals or persons the ontogenetic stage at the time in question. The number of its ontogenetic stages at maturity is its Stratum number (q.v.). See Number, characteristic.
Sub-stratam (n.) (singular of Strata) Ontogenetic stage (q.v.) of the individual in question, at the time in question: human, animal, plant, geoid, molecule, or atom. The individual's highest ontogenetic stage is his ontogenetic ceiling (q.v.). C.f. Ontogeny, stage of; compare with Ontogeny, ceiling of.
Supra-organism (term coined by Alfred E. Emerson ca. 1941 ) A pan-telic system composed of mono or di-telic individuals. E.g. a termite colony composed of so-called castes: worker, soldier and reproducers. C.f. Tel.
Symbiosis (n.) (Greek for living together) The coaction (q.v.) in which the system's work component and controller (q.v.) intensify each other's activity or goal achievement. Symbiosis, written { + , + ), is the characteristic coaction of Group IV in all Periodic Tables. Also called cooperation, mutual help, give and take.
Synnecrosis (n.) (Greek, dying together; coined term) The coaction (q.v.) in which the system's work component and controller (q.v.) decrease each other's activity. Synnecrosis, written ( - , - ), is the characteristic coaction of Group VIII of all Periodic Tables. Synonym: mutual harm, mutual ruin, as of contending classes.
System, closed A non-existent theoretical system which receives no inputs (q.v.) and emits no outputs (q.v.). C.f. System, open.
System, Empirical Any concrete instance of the general system (q.v.), especially in which controller and work component (q.v.) are cybernetically related (q.v.); in which space-time boundaries are discernable, into which more inputs, and out of which outputs of energy or information (q.v.).
System, general (Defined by Haskell and Cassidy ca. 1950) A space-time region bounded by clear but not complete breaks of interdependence; the non-breaks consisting of inputs and outputs, and the inter-dependence consisting of causal and retroactive sequences between the system's basic components: work component and controller (q.v.).
System-hierarchy (coined term) A hierarchy of systems such that each member of the hierarchy after the first is composed of most or all preceding members plus one or more additional (emerged) structures and processes, mutually modified. E.g. the hierarchy of atoms from hydrogen to einsteinium. (W. V. Quine, H. G. Cassidy, E. Haskell, 1964).
System, open A system (q.v.) which receives inputs, emits outputs, or both. C.f. System, closed.
Systems Theory, General A body of systematical theoretical constructs which discuss the general relationships of the empirical world. (Kenneth Boulding).
Taxonomic System (of Unified Science) A classification of ecosystems (q.v.)--abiotic, biotic, and cultural--described in terms of their Characteristic numbers (q.v.).
Taxonomic System (of biology) A system of classification of plants and animals based upon the genetic descent of organisms, but without regard to their habitats (q.v.). This classification is a precondition for and is incorporated in the taxonomic system of Unified Science (q.v.). C.f. Characteristic numbers.
Technogeny (coined term) Forms of control (q.v.) such as manufacture, transport, agriculture, communication, simulation, etc. the capacity to do which is transmitted, not mentally, but genetically. E.g. nest construction by termites. C.f. Technology.
Technology The application of thought, primarily of scientific thought, to the solution of practical problems. Technology acts as a major empirical verifyer of scientific theory. (Figure V-1). C.f. Technology.
Tel (n.) (coined term) A system's goal or norm. (From the Greek telos, the end or goal; as in teleology). In ecology, the objectives of an organ, organism, or society. E.g. nutrition, reproduction, protection. A system may be monotelic, di-, tri- etc., to pantelic. E.g. a termite colony is pantelic, being divided into castes which are mono-telic, yet which fulfil all of the supra-organism's tels (q.v.).
Teleology (n.) Doctrine or view that developments are due to the purpose or design that is served by them. Hence implying a Designer. C.f. Teleonomy, Teleomorphy.
Telemorphy (n.) Displaying a form such as to contribute to or result in one or more systems higher than itself in the System-hierarchy (q.v.). C.f. Teleonomy, Teleology.
Teleonomy (n.) Displaying laws of behavior such as to contribute to or result in one or more systems higher than itself in the System-hierarchy (q.v.). C.f. Teleomorphy, Teleology.
Type specimen A paradigmatic case of a class or category of entities, such as a species of plant or animal; or of an ecosystem. A Periodic Table (q.v.) is just a theoretical framework to the extent to which its categories lack corresponding type specimens. (It is just as empirical system to the extent that its type specimens lack coherent theoretical explication.)
Value bias The general direction of a system's predominant coaction or moral value (q.v.), positive, neutral or negative. The Great Religions and Unified Science share positive value bias. Marxism and fascism share negative value bias. (E.g. "All of recorded history", says the Communist Manifesto, "is the history of class conflict"; conversely, "Love one-another," New Testament.)
Value, moral In Unified Science, the relation between any system's work component and controllcr (q.v.). This relation, also called coaction (q.v.), determines the system's properties, and is the criterion of its Group (q.v.) in the Periodic Table (q.v.). Geometrically, moral value is synonymous wit the radius vector's direction (). Coaction determines (and is determined by) the properties of the system, as stated by the General Periodic Law or Moral Law (q.v.).
Vector (n.) A symbol in geometry, esp. Periodic geometry (q.v.) in the form of an arrow whose length represents the quantity (q.v.) of the system in question and whose direction represents its quality (q.v.). C.f. Periodic Law, General.
Web of life The relationships, especially coactions (q.v.), among the members and components of an eco-system (q.v.). (See Figure II-14b). C.f. Web of mind.
Web of mind (coined term) The mental relationships, especially coactions (q.v.), among members of an institution or culture. (See Figures IV-5, IV-6.). C.f. Web of life.
Work Component The large and powerful component of a cybernetic system whose operation is influenced by the governor or controller. The less strategic entity in an ordinated relationship (q.v.).
Work Component The large and powerful component of a cybernetic system whose operation is influenced by the governor or controller. The less strategic entity in an ordinated relationship (q.v.). In the Periodic coordinate system (q.v.), the work component is mapped on the X axis. C.f. Controller, ordination, strategicity.
Zero, scalar (coined term) Synonym of reference zero, q.v.
Zero-zero circle (See Circle of atropy, Scalar zero circle, Reference zero; Atropy, circle of.
Zygote (n.) Fertilized ovum, the first ontogenetic stage or Substratum (q.v.) of higher organisms-plant, animal, or human.


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